Publications on 3Rs

The Swedish 3Rs Center collect and share knowledge about methods that replace, reduce and refine animal experiments. Here you can find our publications that are published in English.

Recommendations and guidelines

We work as the executive body of the Swedish National Committee for Protection of Animals used for Scientific Purposes. The National Committee decides what guidelines we are to produce. The guidelines are aiming to help organisations and staff to improve their work. They are not imperative, but should be used as a support.

Mice used in research shall not be caught, lifted or moved by the tail. This has been stated by the Swedish National Committee. The statement aims to contribute to improved animal welfare and research quality based on scientific evidence and empirical experience. As support for implementation, we have compiled experiences from Swedish facilities and tips from the 3Rs organization in UK, NC3Rs.

Group housing of male mice

The Swedish 3Rs Center has together with external experts run a project to provide recommendations to Swedish facilities when it comes to group housing for male mice to avoid aggression. The basis for the recommendations is mainly experiences of animal technicians, veterinarians and researchers at Swedish laboratory animal facilities.

Marking and tagging fish

The Swedish 3Rs Center has together with external experts compiled the most common methods for marking and identifying fish. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are evaluated from an animal welfare as well as a users’ point-of-view. The guideline includes both free-living fish and fish in animal facilities.

Other publications

Support in choosing method of euthanasia for mice

Euthanasia of research animals may cause great suffering if the procedure is not carried out correctly. The Swedish 3Rs Center has compiled a material to be used as a support when choosing methods for euthanasia, anaesthesia and confirmation of death in mice.

Template on humane endpoints for animals in research

The Swedish National Committee and its group of experts have developed an assessment template as a support for researchers, veterinarians, approved supervisors and animal caretakers. It can be used to assess animals’ health before, during and after a study to estimate if the animals’ health has deteriorated, as well as to decide if the humane endpoint has been reached.


Our stakeholders have posed issues on formal validation. The issues often relate to a lack of funding but also to a lack of clear and easily accessible information about the process and the requirements. Therefore, the Swedish 3Rs Center has produced infographics to visualise and explain the process.

Publications in Swedish

Most of our publications are published only in Swedish. You find them at our Swedish website.

Revision date: 2024-01-02

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